Water Quality Report

Squaxin Island Consolidated CWS 2018 Water Quality Report

Is my water safe?
“YES!”   Your water is safe!

Water quality is closely monitored by the EPA.

We are pleased to present this year’s Annual Water Quality Report (Consumer Confidence Report) as required by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This report is designed to provide details about where your water comes from, what it contains, and how it compares to standards set by regulatory agencies. This report is a snapshot of last year’s water quality. We are committed to providing you with information because informed customers are our best allies.


Do I need to take special precautions?
No. Your water is safe. Your water is treated by disinfection. Disinfection involves the addition of chlorine or other disinfectants to kill dangerous bacteria and microorganisms that may be in the water. Squaxin Island Utilities staff test the water on a daily basis to ensure it is safe and free of contaminants and bacteria that could potentially harm people or animals.

We run several hundred tests per year to verify this, however, some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. EPA/Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Water Drinking Hotline (800-426-4791).


Where does my water come from?
Your water comes from two wells, SIC Well #1 and SIC Well #2 which are located in the Kamilche Valley near the Little Creek Casino Resort. These wells along with a 250,000-gallon storage tank and water treatment building were completed in 2006 as part of the Indian Health Services Squaxin Water System Improvement project. Your water system is operated and maintained by the Squaxin Island Utilities Department. Every day SIT Utilities Personnel reliably delivers high quality and safe drinking water to your home or business. In fact, we are proud to report that your water meets or exceeds all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. SIT Utilities vigilantly safeguards your water supplies. Each year we conduct hundreds of tests, including daily tests to ensure your water is safe. Monthly tests are performed by an independent and certified laboratory. While we do our utmost to protect your water, it’s important for you also to help keep our water clean. The aquifer in which our wells are located is an underground deposit of sand and gravel where groundwater is stored. The aquifer is replenished by rainfall which seeps down through the soil. Contaminants such as motor oil, gasoline, pesticides, and fertilizers can also seep through the soil and can pollute the groundwater. You can help to protect and conserve groundwater. See the “How can I get involved?” section of this report.


Source water assessment and its availability


Why are there contaminants in my drinking water?
Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791). The sources of drinking water (both tap water and bottled water) include rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, springs, and wells. As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and, in some cases, radioactive material, and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity: microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, that may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife; inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial, or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming; pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, and residential uses; organic Chemical Contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater runoff, and septic systems; and radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally occurring or be the result of oil and gas production and mining activities. In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, EPA prescribes regulations that limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water which must provide the same protection for public health.


How can I get involved?
Across the country, trained volunteers are monitoring the condition of their local streams, lakes, estuaries, wetlands, and groundwater resources. This action called “volunteer monitoring” is encouraged by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It enables citizens to learn about their water resources while providing many benefits. Volunteer water monitors build community awareness of pollution problems, help identify and restore problem sites, become advocates for their watersheds, and increase the availability and amount of needed water-quality information.

Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring is an active movement and essential aspect of protecting and restoring America’s water bodies.   Hundreds of programs exist nationwide, all unique, creating a community through collective efforts.   Volunteer Monitoring (VM) is not free. However, it can be made more cost effective by obtaining data and information through a strategy involving collaboration among interested parties, including academia, federal, state, local and tribal governments, private industry, citizens, and others.

You can learn more at  https://acwi.gov/monitoring/vm


Description of Water Treatment Process
Your water is treated by disinfection. Disinfection involves the addition of chlorine or other disinfectants to kill dangerous bacteria and microorganisms that may be in the water. Disinfection is considered to be one of the major public health advances of the 20th century. Your waters PH level is adjusted by adding Sodium Hydroxide (soda ash) via a chemical feed pump at the source to raise the PH and reduce corrosion.

Water Conservation Tips
Did you know that the average U.S. household uses approximately 400 gallons of water per day or 100 gallons per person per day? Luckily, there are many low-cost and no-cost ways to conserve water. Small changes can make a big difference – try one today and soon it will become second nature.

  • Take short showers – a 5-minute shower uses 4 to 5 gallons of water compared to up to 50 gallons for a bath.
  • Shut off water while brushing your teeth, washing your hair and shaving and save up to 500 gallons a month.
  • Use a water-efficient showerhead. They’re inexpensive, easy to install, and can save you up to 750 gallons a month.
  • Run your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. You can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.
  • Water plants only when necessary.
  • Fix leaky toilets and faucets. Faucet washers are inexpensive and take only a few minutes to replace. To check your toilet for a leak, place a few drops of food coloring in the tank and wait. If it seeps into the toilet bowl without flushing, you have a leak. Fixing it or replacing it with a new, more efficient model can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.
  • Adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered. Apply water only as fast as the soil can absorb it and during the cooler parts of the day to reduce evaporation.
  • Teach your kids about water conservation to ensure a future generation that uses water wisely. Make it a family effort to reduce next month’s water bill!
  • Visit www.epa.gov/watersense for more information.


When doing laundry, always wash full loads.

  • Conventional washers built before 2011 typically use about 40 gallons (151.4 liters) per load; resource-efficient washer may use as little as 15 gallons (56.8 liters) per load.
  • Adjust the water level in the washer to the amount needed for the load.  Some of the new efficient washers will do this automatically.

When it’s time to replace the clothes washer, choose a high-efficiency washer with a low water factor.

  • The smaller the water factor, the more efficient the clothes washer.
  • Energy Star models currently have a maximum of 6.0, although many well-performing machines are available with lower water factors.  Look for the lowest water factor available to achieve the highest water savings.
  • For more information and resources, visit the AWE Residential Clothes Washer Introduction Page.


Dish Washing
If washing dishes by hand, fill the sink with water rather than continually running the tap.

Install an efficient dishwasher.

  • Technological advances in dishwashers make it possible to use less water to achieve the same goal.  Selecting a new dishwasher that uses less water per cycle will reduce household water use.
  • Dishwashers use less water than handwashing, particularly if you limit pre-rinsing.
  • For examples of dishwasher models and their water use, visit the CEE Qualifying Residential Dishwasher List

Only wash full loads of dishes in the dishwasher.

Avoid using running water to thaw frozen foods.

  • Instead, defrost in the refrigerator overnight.


Find and fix any leaky faucets.

  • A faucet leaking 60 drops per minute will waste 192 gallons (726.8 liters) per month. That is equal to 2,304 gallons (8.7 m3) per year.

Install efficient faucets and/or faucet aerators.

  • The U.S. EPA WaterSense program labels efficient faucets and aerators that use a maximum of 1.5 gallons (5.7 liters) per minute.
  • Look for the WaterSense label when selecting new faucets or aerators.

Turn off the faucet.

  • When lathering hands, shaving, or brushing teeth.


If an irrigation system is used, make sure it is properly set up and maintained.

  • Irrigate hydrozones based upon the plants’ water needs.
  • Install a weather-based SMART irrigation controller.  It is essential that SMART controllers are properly programmed and maintained.
  • Install and maintain a rain sensor, either wireless or wired, on the irrigation controller if it does not have one built-in.
  • Regularly inspect the sprinkler heads to make sure they are not damaged or malfunctioning.
  • Adjust sprinklers so they are not spraying water on paved surfaces such as the sidewalk or driveway.
  • For more information, visit the AWE Landscape, Irrigation, and Outdoor Water Use Page.

Landscape with water-wise landscaping principles.

  • Use native plants or plants that require little water to thrive in your region.
  • Plant turf grass only in areas where people will use it actively for recreation.
  • Organize your landscape into hydro-zones. Hydro-zones are areas of landscape with plant and vegetation that have similar water requirements. This prevents over-watering some plants and under-watering others.
  • Keep soil healthy and add mulch to prevent water loss through evaporation.
  • If watering with a hose, make sure it has a shut-off nozzle.
  • Water in the morning to prevent water loss due to evaporation.  Avoid watering when it is windy.
  • Use a rain barrel to collect water for use in the landscape.
  • Add a graywater system to collect water from your washing machine or shower and bath, and use it in the landscape.


If it takes a long time for the hot water to reach the shower, use it as an opportunity to collect water for other uses, such as watering houseplants.

Replace showerheads that have a flow rate greater than 2.5 gallons (9.5 liters) per minute (the current national energy policy act standard).

  • If the showerhead is not labeled, the flow rate can be checked by catching the water in a 1-gallon (3.8 liters) bucket.  If it takes less than 24 seconds to fill up, the showerhead flow rate is more than 2.5 gallons (9.5 liters) per minute.  The U.S. EPA WaterSense program labels efficient showerheads that use a maximum 2.0 gallons (7.6 liters) per minute.
  • For more information and resources, visit the AWE Residential Shower Introduction Page.

Take shorter showers.

  • Reducing a 10-minute shower to 5 minutes will save 12.5 gallons (47.3 liters) of water if the showerhead has a flow rate of 2.5 gallons (9.5 liters) per minute (even more if the showerhead has a higher flow rate).


Replace toilets installed before 1994  (1992 for Texas and California) with High-Efficiency Toilets (HETs).

  • Replacing an older toilet that uses 3.50 gallons (13.2 liters) per flush (gpf) with a HET that uses 1.28 gpf (4.85 liters) will save 2.22 gpf (8.4 Lpf).  The EPA WaterSense program labels efficient toilets that use a maximum 1.28 gpf.
  • If the toilet is flushed an average of six times each day it will save 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day or 4,745 gallons (17.9 m3) per year.  Some older toilets may use as much as 7 gallons (26.5 liters) per flush.
  • For more information and resources, visit the AWE Toilet Fixtures Introduction Page and WaterSense Labeled Toilets Page.

Check toilets to verify they are working properly.

  • Make sure the water level is not too high, the fill valve is working properly, and the flapper is not leaking. A running toilet can waste hundreds of gallons of water per day.



Check water bills for any instances of high water use, as this may be an indication of a leak.

  • Leaking faucets, leaking toilets, and leaking pipes all have something in common, they waste a lot of water! Your water bill will often show abnormal water consumption if there is a leak. Many water utilities have information on how to read your water bill online. For more information and resources, visit the AWE Household Leaks Page.

Composting food wastes saves water by reducing the water needed to run a garbage disposal.

Pool owners can use a cover to reduce water loss through evaporation. A pool cover can also save energy and reduce the need for chemicals.

Sweep outdoor surfaces with a broom instead of using a hose.

Wash vehicles at a carwash that recycles its water. If washing at home, make sure the hose has a shutoff valve.

Cross Connection Control Survey
The purpose of this survey is to determine whether a cross-connection may exist at your home or business. A cross connection is an unprotected or improper connection to a public water distribution system that may cause contamination or pollution to enter the system. We are responsible for enforcing cross-connection control regulations and ensuring that no contaminants can, under any flow conditions, enter the distribution system. If you have any of the devices listed below please contact us so that we can discuss the issue, and if needed, survey your connection and assist you in isolating it if that is necessary.

  • Boiler/ Radiant heater (water heaters not included)
  • Underground lawn sprinkler system
  • Pool or hot tub (whirlpool tubs not included)
  • Additional source(s) of water on the property
  • Decorative pond
  • Watering trough


Source Water Protection Tips
Protection of drinking water is everyone’s responsibility. You can help protect your community’s drinking water source in several ways:

  • Eliminate excess use of lawn and garden fertilizers and pesticides – they contain hazardous chemicals that can reach your drinking water source.
  • Pick up after your pets.
  • If you have your own septic system, properly maintain your system to reduce leaching to water sources or consider connecting to a public water system.
  • Dispose of chemicals properly; take used motor oil to a recycling center.
  • Volunteer in your community. Find a watershed or wellhead protection organization in your community and volunteer to help. If there are no active groups, consider starting one. Use EPA’s Adopt Your Watershed to locate groups in your community, or visit the Watershed Information Network’s How to Start a Watershed Team.
  • Organize a storm drain stenciling project with your local government or water supplier. Stencil a message next to the street drain reminding people “Dump No Waste – Drains to River” or “Protect Your Water.” Produce and distribute a flyer for households to remind residents that storm drains dump directly into your local water body.

Significant Deficiencies
See Violations Table, Ground Water Rule Section. These violations were not acute violations and did not affect water quality in any way.

Additional Information for Lead
If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. Squaxin Consolidated is responsible for providing high-quality drinking water but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lead.

For more information please contact:
Scott Semanko
Utility Manager
10 S.E. Squaxin Lane
Shelton, WA 98584
(360) 426-9781
Mitchell Coxwell
10 S.E. Squaxin Lane
Shelton, WA 98584
(360) 426-9781

Water Quality Data Table
In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, EPA prescribes regulations which limit the amount of contaminants in water provided by public water systems. The table below lists all of the drinking water contaminants that we detected during the calendar year of this report. Although many more contaminants were tested, only those substances listed below were found in your water. All sources of drinking water contain some naturally occurring contaminants. At low levels, these substances are generally not harmful in our drinking water. Removing all contaminants would be extremely expensive, and in most cases, would not provide increased protection of public health. A few naturally occurring minerals may actually improve the taste of drinking water and have nutritional value at low levels. Unless otherwise noted, the data presented in this table is from testing done in the calendar year of the report. The EPA or the State requires us to monitor for certain contaminants less than once per year because the concentrations of these contaminants do not vary significantly from year to year, or the system is not considered vulnerable to this type of contamination. As such, some of our data, though representative, may be more than one year old. In this table, you will find terms and abbreviations that might not be familiar to you. To help you better understand these terms, we have provided the definitions below the table.

Unit Descriptions

ppm ppm: parts per million, or milligrams per liter (mg/L)
NA NA: not applicable
ND ND: Not detected


Important Drinking Water Definitions

MCLG MCLG: Maximum Contaminant Level Goal: The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.
MCL MCL: Maximum Contaminant Level: The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to the MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology.
TT TT: Treatment Technique: A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.
AL AL: Action Level: The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow.
MRDLG MRDLG: Maximum residual disinfection level goal. The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants.
MRDL MRDL: Maximum residual disinfectant level. The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.

2018           Regulated Contaminants Detected

Lead and Copper

Lead and Copper Date Sampled MCLG Action Level (AL) 90th Percentile # Sites Over AL Units Violation Likely Source of Contamination
Copper 06/30/2016 1.3 1.3 0.89 1 ppm N Erosion of natural deposits; Leaching from wood preservatives; Corrosion of household plumbing systems.
Lead 06/30/2016 0 15 3.8 0 ppb N Corrosion of household plumbing systems; Erosion of natural deposits.

Regulated Contaminants

Disinfectants and Disinfection By- Products Collection Date Highest Level Detected Range of Levels Detected MCLG MCL Units Violation Likely Source of Contamination
Chlorine 2018 0.4 0.3 – 0.4 MRDLG = 4 MRDL = 4 ppm N Water additive used to control microbes.
Haloacetic Acids (HAA5) 2018 1 1 – 1 No goal for the total 60 ppb N By-product of drinking water disinfection

Not all sample results may have been used for calculating the Highest Level Detected because some results may be part of an evaluation to determine where compliance sampling should occur in the future

Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) 2018 3.4 3.4 – 3.4 No goal for the total 80 ppb N By-product of drinking water disinfection

Not all sample results may have been used for calculating the Highest Level Detected because some results may be part of an evaluation to determine where compliance sampling should occur in the future

Inorganic Contaminants Collection Date Highest Level Detected Range of Levels Detected MCLG MCL Units Violation Likely Source of Contamination
Nitrate [measured as Nitrogen] 2018 1 0.57 – 0.57 10 10 ppm N Runoff from fertilizer use; Leaching from septic tanks, sewage; Erosion of natural deposits.


Radioactive Contaminants Collection Date Highest Level Detected Range of Levels Detected MCLG MCL Units Violation Likely Source of Contamination
Combined Radium 226/228 12/02/2016 2.498 2.498 – 2.498 0 5 pCi/L N Erosion of natural deposits.
Gross alpha excluding radon and uranium 12/02/2016 1.65 1.65 – 1.65 0 15 pCi/L N Erosion of natural deposits.

Violations Table

Ground Water Rule
The Ground Water Rule specifies the appropriate use of disinfection while addressing other components of ground water systems to ensure public health protection. For the violations below, we failed to correct significant deficiencies within an adequate timeframe. Inadequately treated or inadequately protected water may contain disease-causing organisms, including bacteria, viruses and parasites, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and headaches. This is not an emergency. If it had been, you would have been notified within 24 hours.
Violation Type Violation Begin Violation End Violation Explanation
FAILURE ADDRESS DEFICIENCY (GWR) 11/22/2017 05/14/2018 The water system had no operation and maintenance manual. The O&M manuals were located and now available.
FAILURE ADDRESS DEFICIENCY (GWR) 11/22/2017 07/27/2018 There was a well that needed to be properly decommissioned if no longer in use. The well is no longer connected to potable water system in any way.
FAILURE ADDRESS DEFICIENCY (GWR) 11/22/2017 10/22/2018 The water system did not have a cross-connection control program.

The system now has a cross connection control program and is in compliance.

FAILURE ADDRESS DEFICIENCY (GWR) 11/22/2017 10/22/2018 The water system did not have an emergency response plan.

The system now has an Emergency Response plan and is in compliance.


Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR)
The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) seeks to prevent waterborne diseases caused by E. coli. E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Human pathogens in these wastes can cause short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, and headaches.


Violation Type Violation Begin Violation End Violation Explanation
MONITORING, ROUTINE, MAJOR (RTCR) 02/01/2018 02/28/2018 We failed to test our drinking water for the contaminant and period indicated. Because of this failure, we cannot be sure of the quality of our drinking water during the period indicated.

Water was tested on time for this testing/violation period however, the report was delivered to the EPA 2 days after the required date. We are in compliance with the RTCR.